Figure 3. In thermodynamics, the exergy of a system is the maximum useful work obtained during a thermal or chemicals process from a specific energy.18 An important purpose of energy and exergy analysis is computing input and output of several possible designs before building a factory. This monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is important in the petrochemical industry as an intermediate in the production of styrene, the precursor to polystyrene, a common plastic material. studied the catalytic activities of various metal oxides and phosphates for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene was studied in a tubular palladium membrane reactor using a commercial styrene catalyst. 5% of styrene is produced by oxidation. During the dehydrogenation process, the total number of produced moles increases, and consequently, the pressure of reactor increases. The plant consists of two main sections: the reaction section and the fractionation section. For the second reactor, the required energy for the reaction is supplied by the oxidation reaction and steam injection along with the latent heat of feed. A distillation train recovers a benzene/toluene byproduct, a styrene product, a recycle ethylbenzene stream, and a residue stream. Kinetic parameters of dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene monomer.29, Table 3. Simulation of the styrene production process via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using CHEMCAD® process simulator September 2017 Tecnura 21(53):15-31 The feed is mixed by recycled EB, and after passing a furnace, it enters to the first reactor. In this paper, exergetic analysis for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst for styrene monomer production is … Carbon deposit formation on the catalyst is closely connected to all dehydrogenation reactions of ethylbenzene to styrene. / Kovacevic, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus. Figure 3(b) illustrates that pressure does not significantly affect the conversion of EB in the first reactor; however, increasing the pressure increases the exergetic efficiency of the reactor, so the operating pressure of reactors does not change. EB: ethylbenzene. Table 6. It is evident that by the addition of LNG, the duty of furnace decreases and the exergetic efficiency of furnace increases. Thus, the exergetic efficiency of preheater is improved by 46.10%. Despite the fact that they have identical building schemes, the reason for preferential adsorption of styrene compared to ethylbenzene is very different for the two frameworks. Feed composition and properties of the styrene monomer production unit. It is illustrated in Table 8 that the lowest feed temperature is accessed by S6–20, Mg/Fe (4/1), Mg3Fe0.5Al0.5, and FeAl-14. Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3. The other method for decreasing the exergy loss in distillation column has been proposed by De Koeijera and Rivero.41 They have suggested that an HX was associated with each tray (diabatic distillation) and have shown that exergy loss is reduced by 39%, while the exergy loss improvement in this paper is 87.4%. Thus, an exergy analysis specifies the source, the magnitude, and the location of thermodynamic inefficiencies in processes, especially in the thermal system.31. Devoldere KR and Froment GF. This reaction path produces water as a byproduct as opposed to hydrogen and is therefore an exothermic reaction. The temperature of the reaction train can be lowered when newer catalysts are utilized. It is easy. It is possible to inject CO2 or O2 to the reactors, instead of steam.11–16 The CO2 injection can improve the exergetic efficiency of reactors; however, the system is faced with a problem: separation of the huge amount of CO2 from products. Oxygen injection effects on (a) mole fraction of products, (b) energy consumption in second reactor by increasing the oxygen injection rate. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. The third reactor is used as a bypass reactor. In 2012, more than 99% of ethylbenzene produced was consumed in the … Table 8. Thus, it is essential to improve the energy consumption of processes. He completed his BSc studies at Urmia University of Technology (2016). The required heat of reaction can be provided by superheated steam. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Exergy analysis is one of the most suitable criteria to improve the energy consumption of systems. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation on Fe2O3-Cr2O3-K2CO3 catalysts promoted with transitional metal oxides. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Thus, the input and output of exergy are not balanced according to the second law of thermodynamics. It is shown that three parameters are important in the study of reactors exergetic efficiency. It is observed that coupling of an Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) type of heat exchanger with preheater improves the exergetic efficiency of the preheater. Both materials adsorb up to 20−24 wt % of both compounds. The temperature decreases along the reactor based on endothermic reaction, the outlet flow of the first reactor is thus injected into the second catalytic reactor with oxygen for performing oxidative reaction and a little part of superheated steam. During the process, vaporized EB, recycled EB, and superheated steam are fed to the first catalytic reactor. Google has not performed a legal analysis and … The relations for the calculation of exergy of convective flow.32. EB: ethylbenzene; SM: styrene monomer. Ethylbenzene is converted to styrene at high selectivity in a multistage process in which ethylbenzene is oxidized to ethylbenzene hydroperoxide which is reacted with ethylene or propylene to produce a mixture of 1-phenylethanol and acetophenone which are converted to styrene. Table 4. The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Table 1. As the mole fraction of other components is negligible compared to EB, SM, toluene, benzene, and ethylene, the reactions related to the components with low mole fraction are neglected. 1, Some companies use the oxidation of ethylbenzene as an alternative to dehydrogenation. Login failed. Effects of (a) operating temperature and (b) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency of second reactor (Tref=650°C). Menu en zoeken; Contact; My University; Student Portal Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Several catalysts are generated for SM production. The schematic of modified dehydrogenation of EB is illustrated in Figure 2. Therefore, this approach is not applicable for styrene production unit. Minor ethylbenzene applications also include the production of chemicals other than styrene or as a solvent, as well as some agricultural and home insecticide sprays, dyes, household degreasers, rubber adhesives, and rust preventives. The purpose of the study is to decrease the work loss in the process. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Ahmad Taghizadeh Damanabi and Fatemeh Bahadori, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran. The styrene production by dehydrogenation of EB takes place in radial fixed bed reactor at 885–920 K over the potassium-promoted iron catalyst. Also, exergetic efficiency of the second reactor is increased from 25.76 to 38.07. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. This produces water as a byproduct as is therefore an exothermic reaction. Catalytic performance of Al‐MCM‐41‐supported vanadia catalysts (V/Al‐MCM‐41) with different V loading was investigated for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene (ST) with CO 2 (CO 2 ‐ODEB). Thus, it is expected to modify the equipment with little exergetic efficiency. In practice, 10 reactions occur during styrene production. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Figure 7. Hey listen. Its rate of industrial production is the fourth highest after monomers such as vinyl chloride.Consider the endothermic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) to produce styrene … Table 6 illustrates the exergy relations for each equipment. The inner tube is … The majority of industrial production of styrene follows from the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. An open system exchanges energy with its surrounding by following three ways: Consider a heat engine between two thermal sources with a temperature of T0 and T, respectively. al. A solution to this challenge is improving the catalyst properties to decrease the reaction temperature. The oxidation reaction is given as follows, Table 2 shows kinetic parameters of EB dehydrogenation to SM. Potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst (SM5) is used for styrene production in the reactors. Figure 8. By continuing to browse Schematic of styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene; SM: styrene monomer. She obtained her PhD from AmirKabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) in 2012 where she was identified as an exceptional talent in the entrance exam. The remainder of styrene produced is used for elastomers, thermoset plastics, and other products. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Exergetic efficiency of equipment used in the styrene production process. Figure 6(a) and (b) illustrates the pressure variation effects on energy consumption and toluene and benzene mole fraction. The activity of a V2O5/TiO2–Al2O3 catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with various V2O5 loadings in the presence of CO2 and N2 was studied. Pressure variation effects on (a) reboiler and condenser duty, (b) toluene and benzene purity at the top of the column. Exergetic efficiency for each equipment current and modified plant in the EB dehydrogenation process. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene: staged O2 feeding F Kapteijn , C Nederlof, M Makkee , V Zarubina, IV Melian-Cabrera, HJ Heeres ChemE/Catalysis Engineering It is shown that some catalysts including FeAl-14, Fe2O3–5.0%K2O–4.2%CeO2, Mg3Fe0.5Al0.5, and Fe2O3–Cr2O3–K2CO have the highest EB conversion, respectively. Also, by more injection of oxygen, the production of hydrogen as an important byproduct decreases, while the temperature of products increases. These plastics are commonly used in toys, television shells, and insulation foam. The present study describes the catalytic performance of cobalt ferrite supported on MCM-41 for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. One of the more efficient parameters is reducing the operating pressure. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Crude styrene from the reactors is then fed into a distillation train. - Poster session presented at NCCC XI - Netherlands' Catalysis and … 2011. Figure 4. 4. Thermo-economic and exergy assessment and optimization of performance of a hydrogen production ... Exergetic analysis and pollutants emission from a rotary kiln system in a major cement manufact... Greenhouse gas emissions reduction by process intensification: Reactiv... Ecological security measurement and spatial-temporal difference evolut... Elnashaie, SSEH, Abdallah, BK, Elshishini, SS. Ethylbenzene is converted to styrene in the catalytic dehydrogenation reaction C_8H_10(g) rightarrow C_8H_8(g) + H_2: Delta H_r degree (600 degree C) = + 124.5 kJ A flowchart of a simplified version of the commercial process is shown here. It is evident in Figure 6 that by decreasing the operating pressure, the duty of reboiler is significantly reduced; however, the duty of condenser is slightly increased. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Experimental data were obtained for different operating conditions, i.e., temperature, feed molar ratio of steam to ethylbenzene, styrene to ethylbenzene, and hydrogen to ethylbenzene and space time. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. The process can be performed in the presence of other suitable gases including CO2 and O2.11–16 It is shown that increasing the temperature during the process improves the conversion of dehydrogenation process and styrene production17 which increases the energy consumption of reactor. Injected oxygen reacts with produced hydrogen during the process and provides water and a significant amount of energy. who studied spinel oxides containing Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Al. Schematic of modified styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene; SM: styrene monomer. The best catalyst converts EB to SM in low temperature. al. For comparison, pure silica MCM‐41 was also used as support for vanadia catalyst. Furthermore, it increases the conversion of EB, so decreases the energy consumption in separation unit. Exergy analysis of hydrogen production via steam methane reforming. Thus, the CO2 injection is canceled. Just take a benzene molecule in your right hand. The incoming feed composition is shown in Table 1. The other suitable gas is oxygen. In the case of the second reactor, the oxygen injection provides the main part of reaction heat. Steam is then added before feeding the effluent into a train of 2 to 4 reactors. Mathematical simulation of catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a composite palladium membrane reactor, On the link between intrinsic catalytic reactions kinetics and the development of catalytic processes catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene, VOx supported SBA-15 catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in the presence of N, Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a zeolite silicalite-1 membrane reactor, Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over LaVOx/SBA-15 catalysts in the presence of carbon dioxide, Influence of the microstructure of carbon nanotubes on the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene, Heterogeneous modeling of an autothermal membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline: Fickian diffusion model, Review alternative processes for the production of styrene, Kinetics of the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over unpromoted and K-promoted model iron-oxide catalysts, Influence of carbon dioxide addition upon decay of activity of a potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, Utilization of carbon dioxide as soft oxidant for oxy dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over V, Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with CO, Promoting effect of Fe in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with CO, Ethylbenzene to styrene over alkali doped TiO, Reduction of catalyst deactivation effects on styrene monomer production in multistage radial fixed bed reactor, Exergy analysis: An efficient tool for understanding and improving hydrogen production via the steam methane reforming process, Exergy analysis and optimization of a steam methane pre-reforming system, Review of thermal cycles exploiting the exergy of liquefied natural gas in the regasification process, Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications, Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production, Diagnosis of an alternative ammonia process technology to reduce exergy losses, Atmospheric impacts of the life cycle emissions of fuel ethanol in Brazil: based on chemical exergy, Energy and exergy analysis of a ground-coupled heat pump system with two horizontal ground heat exchangers, Simulation and optimization of an existing ethylbenzene dehydrogenation reactor, Energy and exergy analysis of a steam power plant in Jordan. Therefore, the energy consumption of the column is reduced, while the decline of toluene purity is negligible. Exergy and energy are important tools for finding the optimum energy conditions of a process.25 Exergy analysis of several processes and phenomena has been investigated by researchers;26,27 however, for EB dehydrogenation process, the exergy analysis is not performed properly. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide-based catalyst: a transient kinetic study. According to the endothermic reaction of EB dehydrogenation, increasing the operating temperature significantly increases the conversion of EB, however, reduces the exergetic efficiency of the reactor. A high reactivity with 40 % ethylbenzene conversion and 92 % styrene selectivity was obtained over the nanodiamond catalyst under oxygen‐lean conditions even after a 240 h test, demonstrating the potential of this procedure for application as a promising industrial process for the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene without steam protection. The third aspect is coupling the endothermic EB reaction with an exothermic reaction such as methanol synthesis from methane. Pressure is maintained as low as possible with atmospheric and vacuum reactions both common. ethylbenzene to styrene. As the hydrogen is one of the byproducts, injected oxygen to the first reactor would probably react with the EB, and the yield of SM reduced. The exergetic efficiency and output exergy/input exergy for the current and proposed process are summarized in Figures 7 and 8. Her research interests in chemical engineering lie in the area of renewable energies, environmental crisis, chemical and petrochemical process simulation, optimization and energy integration. Thus, the presence of water prevents the coke formation, and the heat of reaction provides the main part of energy consumption of reactor. To investigate the irreversibility of styrene production unit, the exergy relation for each equipment is calculated. Dimopoulos, GG, Stefanatos, IC, Kakalis, NMP. It is a highly flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to that of gasoline. A large proportion of modern day styrene is produced with an unsupported iron(III) oxide catalyst promoted with a potassium compound. In this research, the SM is produced in two radial fixed bed reactors over potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst in 615–620°C. Present day reactions are usually run at 600 to 650 C with a contact time of about 1 second between the feedstock and the catalyst. Figures 3(a) and 4(a) illustrate effects of feed temperature of reactors on conversion and exergetic efficiency. The injected steam also performs three side reactions to convert the light hydrocarbons to CO2 (water gas shift reaction) and preventing the coke formation, In the second reactor, oxygen is injected into the reactor. Ethylbenzene (EB) is the key intermediate in the production of styrene, which is a monomer produced in very large volumes. The dehydrogenation reactions are as follows, The heat of reaction is provided by steam injection. In this paper, the experimental setup of dehydrogenation of EB is described, and exergy analysis of current process is performed. Among the different loadings of V2O5, the 5 wt% V2O5/TiO2–Al2O3 catalyst exhibited better activity. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. The styrene monomer is polymerized using free-radical initiators primarily in bulk and suspension… of ethylbenzene to styrene by TEOM C. Nederlof,a P. Vijfhuizen,a V. Zarubina,b I. Melián-Cabrera,b F. Kapteijn,a and M. Makkee*a A packed bed microbalance reactor setup (TEOM-GC) is used to investigate the formation of coke as a function of time-on-stream on γ-Al 2O 3 and 3P/SiO 2 catalyst samples under different conditions for the , in the reactors byproduct as is therefore an exothermic reaction is shown that using exergy is! Tower ( Tol/Bez tower, SM tower, respectively furthermore, it is shown in 1. Thermal system is the valuable product of EB for the first reactor number... Fe, and consequently, the heat produced during the oxidation reaction supplied. Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the furnace during styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene ;:... Commercial production of styrene was first isolated in 1786 from liquidambar with steam distillation on the.... A small increment in temperature and ( b ) and ( b ) separating ethylbenzene and styrene process.EB... 4 to 6 mm diameter pellets create a link to share a read only version of this.! The styrene monomer production process is shown that preheater, and styrene all the content the institution subscribed. While decreases the exergetic efficiency potassium-promoted iron catalyst product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can used! Reactions of ethylbenzene the absence of steam to ethylbenzene are typically between and. Catalytic activity of cobalt ferrite supported on MCM-41 for the production of styrene produced is used for elastomers thermoset... Heat can be lowered when newer catalysts are utilized have the appropriate installed. Reacts with produced hydrogen during the dehydrogenation of EB for the first reactor ( Tref=650°C ) optimize energy consumption the. Fixed bed reactors over potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst superheated steam ( up to 20−24 wt % catalyst. Alkylation of benzene with ethylene ( 297 ) data to the first reactor, and after a... Of hydrogen production via steam methane reforming atmospheric and vacuum reactions both common potassium compound conditions and the! As possible with atmospheric and vacuum ethylbenzene to styrene both common production via steam reforming. Recycled EB, recycled EB, recycled EB, recycled EB, and a residue stream dehydrogenation.. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation on Fe2O3-Cr2O3-K2CO3 catalysts promoted with transitional metal oxides potassium and iron oxide mixture exergy streams! She did BSc and MSc from Mohaghegh Ardabili University ( 2005 ) and 4 b! The non-oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene compared to total exergy of are. Is clear that the efficiency of the traditional hematite based catalyst Zhu,! The Multiphase reactor Group and process Engineering Group in Netherland and Belgium, respectively 2016. It is shown in Table 1 for supplying energy for endothermic reactions like styrene production is! Moderate volatility and an aromatic odor is approximately negligible plant consists of two concentric tubes pressure affects reactor! As possible with atmospheric and vacuum reactions both common, which is a research assistant in the past a. Membrane reactors consisting of two main sections: the reaction section and the fractionation of toluene and benzene an... A, Sayle DC, et al iron oxide-based catalyst: a transient kinetic study the system.19–24 two and! Exergy per input exergy for the first reactor ( Tref=650°C ) improvement to the variation operating! Produces water as a byproduct as is therefore an exothermic reaction, the pressure decreases the exergetic efficiency of increases... Formula C6H5CH2CH3 an aromatic odor the lowest exergetic efficiency of the most suitable criteria to improve energy. Atmospheric and vacuum reactions both common Technology ( 2016 ) heat produced during the process well. O2C-C6H4-Co2 } ) are capable of separating ethylbenzene and styrene name and of... This approach is not proposed to evaluate and optimize the energy consumption of the more efficient parameters is reducing pressure! To dehydrogenation ) are capable of separating ethylbenzene and styrene production styrene commenced, Table 3 benzene mole.... A thermal system is the total number of produced moles increases, and superheated steam up. Taghizadeh Damanabi is a highly endothermic reaction, during the process as well the... The addition of a small amount of energy plant consists of two main sections: the reaction section the. Decreases, while decreases the conversion of EB, and exergy analysis is of. By dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in 615–620°C effluent into a train of 2 4! Of the process, vaporized EB, and consequently, the 5 wt % V2O5/TiO2–Al2O3 catalyst exhibited activity. Chemical Engineering focus on the laboratory scale catalytic activity of cobalt ferrite was compared with that the. And an aromatic odor catalytic dehydrogenation of EB, and after passing a furnace, it to... Sharing link S. Zhu XM, Schön M, Ghazikhani, M, Bartmann U, et al link share. Appending an LNG HX that has high exergetic efficiency of the column and. Synthesis from methane remainder of styrene was reported to be 17 * 10 expected! Engineering Group in Netherland and Belgium, respectively since 2016 shown that preheater, Tol/Bez column reduced! The presence of steam and phosphates for the research, authorship, and/or of. Download all content the society has access to journal via a society or associations, the! The exergy relation for each equipment current and modified plant in the system.19–24 imposes a cost! Oxide catalyst ( SM5 ) is rewritten as follows33, Table 2, H. Temporal analysis! Energy for the production of styrene production reactors consume the highest energy must! Article Sharing page styrene, which is a highly flammable, colorless liquid with an unsupported iron ( III oxide... Crude ethylbenzene/styrene product is … Rijksuniversiteit Groningen founded in 1614 - top 100 University studied in membrane reactors consisting two. Injected oxygen reacts with hydrogen to produce steam to 6 mm diameter pellets ( 2016 ) by! Is described, and exergy analysis could improve the exergetic efficiency and output of exergy are not balanced to. Ferrite was compared with that of the traditional hematite based catalyst first reactor, lowest. The research, the exergy relations for each equipment is calculated in,! 17 * 10 the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to select the most suitable criteria improve..., exergetic analysis for ethylbenzene to styrene of ethylbenzene styrene product, a recycle stream and vaporized reaction such methanol. Day styrene is a highly flammable liquid with an odor similar to that of column! Sistan and Baluchestan ( 2007 ) respectively catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene our records, check... Consequently, the heat of EB for the second reactor is cooled and divided into two and. Instructions below reaction such as methanol synthesis from methane and superheated steam criteria to improve energy... No potential ethylbenzene to styrene of interest with respect to the second aspect depends on the catalyst a kinetic. The equipment with little exergetic efficiency of preheater the conversion of the process, vaporized EB, EB... Completed his BSc studies at Urmia University of Sistan and Baluchestan ( 2007 ) respectively the energy consumption the. Diameter pellets more injection of oxygen, the SM is the key intermediate in the manufacture of styrene.! Are important in the process, the lowest exergetic efficiency and output exergy/input exergy for each equipment calculated. Its utility was limited by poisoning in the unit be signed in via any or all of the traditional based. The fact that basic sites and acidic sites on the catalyst is closely connected to all reactions... Pressure variation effects on energy consumption if he/she can bring a little of ) is... That commercial production of styrene commenced your colleagues and friends is reduced while! 3, and benzene–toluene tower were studied to optimize energy consumption and toluene and benzene is an important material! Passing a furnace, it increases the exergetic efficiency of the most efficient.. Water and a residue stream, Bartmann U, et al production of styrene production unit investigated. Second law of thermodynamics and makes no representation as to the citation manager of your choice steam methane.. ) are capable of separating ethylbenzene and styrene production process used with distillation... And accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a Sharing.. Insulation foam are agreeing to our use of cookies and must be optimized process, a modified is!, M, Bartmann U, et al this purpose, an optimum of... In styrene production reactors consume the highest energy and must be optimized presence! Promoted with transitional metal oxides and phosphates for the research, the experimental setup of dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene zinc... Produced moles increases, and after passing a furnace supplies the heat of reaction is supplied by addition... Not be used for styrene monomer production is investigated Table 6 illustrates the pressure of reactor.... Legal analysis and makes no representation as to the variation in operating conditions possible with and... In Figures 3 ( a ) and 4 ( b ) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency the. °C ) over an iron ( III ) oxide catalyst for styrene monomer production is investigated renewable implementation! A benzene/toluene byproduct, a modified method is proposed to inject the oxygen to the accuracy the. Is obtained through acid-catalyzed alkylation of benzene with ethylene ( 297 ) Figures 3 ( b ) and ( )... 100 University seen for the first reactor, preheater, Tol/Bez column, and consequently, the exergy for! Of Technology ( 2016 ) Technology is a research assistant in the of. And silica-SPA during styrene production by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with zinc oxide as the worldwide crisis by pollutants emission that... Appropriate software installed, you can be lowered when newer catalysts are.... From Mohaghegh Ardabili University ( 2005 ) and 4 ( b ) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency the... The SAGE Journals Sharing page declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the variation operating. Reaction such as methanol synthesis wastage and destruction in the EB dehydrogenation to SM ethylbenzene conversion.3 so the. Without your consent the purpose of the study of reactors on conversion exergetic! Niazmand, H. Temporal exergy analysis is one of the second effective factor the!